The purpose of which job is to review the end result from breed and ages into the eggs creation as well as the eggs additional and you can inner high quality for the four Italian twin-mission types , initially and many weeks later on than very first weeks putting activity you to definitely occurred, respectively, at the conclusion of june/start of fall and in cold temperatures, under variable environmental standards.
dos.1. Dogs and Rearing Standards
Five Italian chicken breeds, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), Robusta Maculata (RM) and you can Robusta Lionata (RL), have been believed toward study. The human body pounds out of mature ladies try step one.twenty-five kg when you look at the PP, 2.30 kg within the Emergency room and you may 3.05 kilogram within the RM and RL. The origin ‘s the Veneto area (Italy): PP was a vintage local reproduce; their supply are old back again to the XIX century, but zero perfect study towards the their hereditary provider can be found. Others breeds manufactured in Veneto inside 1950s: brand new Emergency room breed originates from Sussex (shaded eggshell reproduce) and you may Rhode Island (brown eggshell breed) types, whereas to the RM and you can RL breeds, Brownish Orpington and you can White The usa, a couple brown eggshell breeds were utilized . Plus the mature body weight, such types disagree inside their plumage along with: it’s golden within the PP, Er reveals erminate plumage, RM plumage is actually mainly white that have black extremities in lots of regions of human anatomy, black colored feathers of primaries and you will end and RL reveals an excellent tawny plumage with black colored feathers regarding primaries and you will end. All breeds (Contour S1) reveal solitary comb and you will place tinted eggshell eggs (Contour S2).
dos. Information and techniques
Wild birds out of for each reproduce hatched meanwhile (last half off elizabeth farm of your Heart to have Chicken Biodiversity Maintenance in the Veneto part (they routinely provides for the new rearing ones breeds too as for the egg design to possess incubation and you will brooding), for the North Italy (45°02?53? N), of hatching towards the pubertal decades and you may about laying several months, hence become throughout the end out of summer on beginning of autumn (Figure 1), with respect to the reproduce. Eating, rearing standards (photoperiod, temperature) and you can prophylaxis actions was basically a comparable on four breeds, since that time from hatching on the prevent of examined period, that has been when you look at the , on 53 days of age. Brand new freshly hatched chicks was kept inside inside very first cuatro days off lifestyle, at the a green temperature decreasing regarding thirty two so you’re able to 24 °C, lower than infra-red-colored light lights, with the litter. During the step 1.5 weeks old, the brand new birds were given totally free the means to access outside spaces, away from spring season so you’re able to autumn and wintertime. Per reproduce (60 hens) had totally free use of outdoor (5 yards 2 /bird) room (armed with linear drinkers), where in fact the hens resided right through the day, also to indoor (cuatro hens/yards 2 indonesiska brГ¶llop brud ) area (wood shavings and you can straw litter, that have perches and round feeders), used mainly to own laying egg (cumulative nests) as well as nights; the bedroom (interior and outdoor) open to for every reproduce are split up by the netting.
At the outset of laying (around 22 weeks of age on the breed with prior to start of installing), into the September–October, with regards to the breed, new photoperiod are pure and decreasing, depending on the 12 months together with geographical condition of one’s trial station when you look at the North Italy (typically, 12L:12D), and also for the 2nd period (out of 38 months old, of December so you’re able to 53 days of age), artificial white try slowly increased (into the interior room, incandescent bulb, throughout the 60 lux) to track down a good photoperiod of 14L:10D. New photoperiod is actually controlled of the a timer, and it also was attained by switching on the newest light an hour or so before dawn and turning off it an hour after sunset. The new exterior environment heat try 10 ± 3.4 °C and 11 ± step 3.0 °C, correspondingly, towards the earliest (right from the start of Oct on avoid regarding November) and the 2nd (right from the start out-of January on end off February) laying periods, when the investigation toward produce overall performance and you can egg top quality was gathered. The pets got advertisement libitum industrial nourishes considering the mental phase (around three diversified commercial feeds in the growing months). Into basic laying phase (26–33 days of age, less than coming down sheer photoperiod), if the breeds already been installing, new birds received a commercial pelleted feed (PG = 16%, Myself = 11.8 MJ/kilogram, Ca = 1.1%, P = 0.6%) and maize (PG = nine.1%, Myself = thirteen.seven MJ/kg), at the a proportion of 1:1. It is worth remembering that, at that age, only the dual-goal and tinted eggshell types exhibited a varying start of putting and you will egg creation rates, whereas new hens from the almost every other varieties of the fresh Conservation Heart to own Biodiversity and hatched meanwhile of your learned breeds, like the white eggshell types, didn’t initiate laying (Padovana reproduce) or it exhibited an incredibly scant installing pastime (Polverara breed), never attaining the tolerance off 10% hen–time eggs production. The reason for the option of the Conservation Center, not to use a rss getting laying hens throughout the this period, try on account of not pressuring brand new pullets in order to egg development through the a month having decreasing temperature and you may photoperiod. The latest wild birds increased external, around favorable requirements having skeletal wellness, travelling crushed and under solar rays. On outdoor area each breed, the presence of lawn available to this new birds are high while in the the fresh expanding several months than on onset of putting, and this taken place after the summer season, in the event the rain was scarce and failed to support an excellent grass regrowth. Away from 38 so you’re able to 53 months old, and significantly less than broadening photoperiod, the brand new hens were given a commercial pelleted feed having putting (PG = 16%, Myself = 11.5 MJ/kg, Ca = cuatro.2%, P = 0.6%). The nourishes comprised mostly from maize and you will soybean.